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    Contents lists available at ScienceDirect
    Current Problems in Cancer
    journal homepage:
    Association of elevated levels of C-reactive protein with breast cancer, breast cancer subtypes, and poor outcome
    Raman Preet Kaur a, Rubal b, Raja Paramjeet Singh Banipal c, Rajesh Vashistha d, Monisha Dhiman b, Anjana Munshi a,∗ a Department of Human Genetics and Molecular Medicine, Central University of Punjab, Bathinda, Punjab, India b Department of Biochemistry and Microbial Sciences, Central University of Punjab, Bathinda, Punjab, India
    c Guru Gobind Singh Medical College & Hospital, Faridkot, Punjab, India d Max Super-Specialty Hospital, Bathinda, India
    Breast cancer
    C-reactive protein
    Infiltrating ductal carcinoma
    Background and Purpose: Inflammation and caner are linked in a bidirectional manner. C-reactive protein (CRP) is an im-portant inflammatory marker. The aim of the study was to test whether the inflammatory marker, CRP at the time of di-agnosis of breast cancer is associated with metastasis, recur-rence, and death in breast cancer patients from Malwa region of Punjab where breast cancer is widely feared.
    Material and Methods: Two hundred and forty-two breast cancer patients and 242 age and sex matched controls were included in the study. CRP levels were estimated using fully automated bio analyzer Erba200. Follow up interviews were conducted at an interval of 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 21, 24, and 27 months to determine the outcome among breast cancer pa-tients.
    Results: Elevated levels of CRP were found among the dis-eased in comparison with controls (P < 0.0001). Higher CRP levels associated significantly with poor outcome includ-
    Financial assistance provided by Central University of Punjab, Bathinda (CUPB) is acknowledged with thanks. Conflict of interest: The authors declare that conifers have no conflict of interest.
    Compliance with Ethical Standards: The blood sample collection of breast cancer patients for the present study was approved by Institutional Ethics Committee (IES) of CUPB.
    ∗ Correspondence to: Anjana Munshi, Department of Human Genetics and Molecular Medicine, Central University of Punjab, Bathinda, India.
    E-mail address: [email protected] (A. Munshi).
    Conclusion: Elevated levels of CRP associated significantly with increased risk of breast cancer and poor outcome. CRP estimation may be a simple and inexpensive tool for the risk assessment and outcome of the disease in Malwa region of Punjab where incidence of breast cancer is reported to be very high.