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    Contents lists available at ScienceDirect
    Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces
    journal homepage:
    A new drug carrier with oxygen generation function for modulating tumor T hypoxia microenvironment in cancer chemotherapy
    Zhe Zhanga, Na Niua,b, , Xi Gaoa, Fuqin Hana, Zhijun Chenb, Shujun Lib, , Jian Lib
    a College of Science, Northeast Forestry Universtiy, Harbin, 150001, PR China
    b Key Laboratory of Bio-Based Materials Science and Technology, Ministry of Education, Northeast Forestry Universtiy, Harbin, 150001, PR China
    Oxygen generation function
    Drug release Magnetic Fe3O4 Au2O3
    Hypoxia is the main characteristic of tumor microenvironment, and the one of the key factors that cause the drug resistance of cancer cells for chemotherapy. Anticancer drug such as DOX cannot react with sufficient oxygen to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) in hypoxic environment, which affects the therapeutic efficiency of the drug. In this work, we constructed a multi-functional nano-carrier (named as FeSiAuO) containing Fe3O4, me-soporous SiO2 and Au2O3 with magnetic, large surface ratio and light induced oxygen production properties. The Au2O3 may decompose into oxygen (O2) and Au under the light irradiation to improve the oxygen concentration of the microenvironment of cancer cells, which increases the sensitivity of cancer cells to drug (DOX), reduces the drug resistance, and effectively exerts the anticancer effect of DOX. Meanwhile, the release of the as-loaded DOX molecule from the porous of SiO2 will be also promoted under light irradiation in diverse pH conditions. With the helping of the magnet effect of the Fe3O4, the DOX can be also targeted delivered to the tumor site under the magnetic field. All of above results were thoroughly examined by the cell and small animal assays, which demonstrate that the FeSiAuO can be served as the multifunctional drug nano-carrier to achieve the targeted high-efficient cancer therapy.
    1. Introduction
    At present, the precise diagnosis and efficient treatment of cancer/ tumor have posed enormous challenges to researchers in the field of biomedicine [1–4]. As the main method of cancer treatment, the che-motherapy which refers to the treatment using chemical drugs such as doxorubicin (DOX) can react with intracellular oxygen to generate re-active oxygen species (ROS), and then kill or damage cancer cells, whose therapy effect is relatively more obvious for now [5–9]. How-ever, drug therapy was seriously hindered in clinical application owning to its weakness of multi-drug resistance of tumor cell [10]. One of the main reasons for drug resistance is the hypoxic microenviron-ment at the tumor site and within the tumor cells, which is derived from the formation mechanism of the tumor, including overgrowth of the cancer cells in the early stage, blood abnormalities during the neo-vascularization and overlong oxygen diffusion distance [11–15]. As for the DOX, its therapeutic effect can be strongly decreased by the low oxygen concentration level of the cancer cells [16–19]. Therefore, in order to break through the difficult point with resistance of tumor cells to DOX for cancer therapy, it is essential to take measures to increase